Monday, March 16, 2015

The Noun

A noun is a word used for naming anything. 
Man                           Book       
Woman                     School
Boy                            Fox
Girl                            Song
Lion                           Glass
Box                            Actor
Kinds of nouns
1.The proper noun:
A proper noun is a name for one particular person, place or event, as distinct from any other.
New York
The revolution
The American   
The red sea
The Atlantic ocean
The Mississippi river
2. The common noun :
A common noun is a name which is common to any person or thing of the kind.
Lake                          Theatre
Hospital                     Magazine
Dictionary                  Garden
River                          Museum
3.The material noun :
A material noun is the name of particular kinds of matter.
Water                        Milk
Gold                         Silver
4.The collective noun :
A collective noun is the noun of a group of persons or things as one complete individual whole.
Examples :
Jury ( a group of judges)
Fleet( a group of warships)
Army( a group of soldiers )
Empire (a group of nations under one ruler ship)
Flock (a group of sheep)
5. Compound nouns :
School master                Ice-cream
Shopkeeper                    Apple-tree
Gunpowder                    Seashore
Moonlight                       Tea-time
Housemaid                     Stream-engine
Postcard                         Night-train
Newspaper                     Sand-storm
Nouns can be singular or plural : a singular noun denotes one object.  A plural noun denotes more than one object.
Formation of the plural:
 A/ By adding (s) to the singular noun this applies to most nouns except some cases that will be explained later on :

B/ By adding (ES) to the singular for words ending in :
                 - sh - ch - x - z -
Examples : CH + ES

Brush                                 Brushes                                        
Bush                                  Bushes
X + ES
Box                                    Boxes
Tax                                     Taxes
S + ES
Mass                                  Masses                                                                          
Dress                                  Dresses
Gas                                    Gases
Glass                                  Glasses
Z + ES
Fez                                      Fezes
Topaz                                 Topazes
C- by changing (Y) preceded by a consonant to (IES)
Examples :
Lady                                 Ladies
Story                                Stories
Fly                                   Flies
Army                               Armies
But if (Y) preceded by a vowel, the plural is by adding (S) only.
Valley                               Valleys
Boy                                   Boys
Key                                   Keys
Day                                   Days
toy                                    Toys
D- By changing the (F) or (FE) to (VES)
Leaf                                  Leaves
Wife                                 Wives
Knife                                Knives
Thief                                Thieves
wolf                                  Wolves
E- Irregular plurals
Examples :
Man                               Men
Woman                        Women
Tooth                           Teeth
Foot                             Feet
Ox                                Oxen
Child                            Children
Deer                             Deer
Sheep                           Sheep
Duck                            Duck
Noun cases :
The noun has four cases :
1-    Subjective case.
     2- Objective case.
     3- Possessive .
     4- Vocative case.
1- Subjective case :
-      It  denotes the subject of the verb .
Examples :
Ladies gossip                                   The heat is unbearable
Readers read                                    The sky is clear
Birds fly                                           The sea is rough
Friends cooperate                             The rain is heavy
The air is fresh                                 The dog is faithful
The sun is shining                            The snake is dangerous
2- Objective case:
Teachers teach students.
Doctors treat patients.
Girls pick flowers.
John likes music.
We speak English.
The poet composed an elegy.
3- Possessive :
      - It denotes ownership. For singular nouns we use (S)
The boy’s ball                             The actor’s movement                                              
The artist’s touch                        The tiger’s strength
The cat’s paw                             The monkey’s look
The writer’s mind                        The girl’s bag
The singer’s voice                       The soldier’s gun
For singular nouns ending in (S), use the apostrophe only .
Hercules’ power
Moses’ law
For plural nouns ending in (S), use the apostrophe only .
Examples :
The soldiers’ camps.
The players’ room.
The nations’ hopes.
The dogs’ life.
The eagles’ nest .
The teachers’ room.
The doctors’ office .
For plural nouns not ending in (S), use (S).
Examples :
The men’s society
The women’s suffering
The children’s nurse
4- Vocative case :
       A noun is in the vocative case, when it is used for the sake of address.
Examples :
Son, you must be careful.
I’m very sorry, grandpa.
Let us forget that, my friend.
Don’t make such a fuss, Nina.
Now can you do this exercise?
State the case of the nouns in the following sentences :
1. You opened my eyes.
2. My friend has just arrived.
3. Please, tell your brother another story.
4. Are you coming with us, Mark.
5. I expect many guests.
Use each of the following nouns in suitable sentences :
Address                                          Music
Words                                            Train
Library                                            Heart
* Write 5 sentences on each of following pattern :
A. subject (noun)   + verb
B. subject  + verb + complement (object)
Express by using the possessive form.
Examples :
The house of my uncle . My uncle’s house.
1. The cat of his wife.
2. The book of her father
3. The room of the teachers.
4. The toys of the boys.
5. The gun of my friend.